"With the evidence steadily accumulating that Parkinson's disease is a multifactorial oxidative disease, there is an urgent need for integrative management. The allopathic model that currently dominates Parkinson's management is obsolete. The major adverse side effects of the various drugs currently in use for the disease, combined with the limitations of the dopamine replacement strategy, dictate the need for alternatives.
"   Parris M. Kidd, Ph.D.
What Is Parkinson's Disease?
Combination of Two Widely Used Pesticides Linked to Parkinson's Disease
from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
"Scientists have shown that the combination of two widely used agricultural pesticides-but neither one alone-creates in mice the exact pattern of brain damage that doctors see in patients with Parkinson's disease. The research offers the most compelling evidence yet that everyday environmental factors may play a role in the development of the disease."
Parkinson's Disease: Causative Factors
by Linda Lazarides
Abstracts of Journal Articles Linking Diet to Parkinson's Disease
Study Links Folate Deficiency with Parkinson's
by Suzanne Rostler
"Through animal and laboratory tests, scientists at the National Institute on Aging Gerontology Research Center found what they call "the first direct evidence" that elevated homocysteine levels increase the risk of Parkinson's."
Parkinson's Tied to Renegade Protein
from Health Central.com
"Parkinson's disease results from the death of brain cells that make dopamine, a signaling chemical important in motor control and mental ability. But scientists haven't yet discovered what makes these neurons die off.
Now, researchers have found a possible mechanism for the destruction -- with an ironic twist. Dopamine becomes toxic to the very cells that produce it by hooking up with a wayward form of another brain molecule, alpha-synuclein (a-synuclein)."
Causes of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's Disease, Michael Fox, MS And The Aspartame Story
"Many researchers believe that a combination of oxidative damage, environmental toxins, genetic predisposition, and accelerated aging may ultimately be shown to cause the disease."
by Betty Martini
Advice for Michael J. Fox
by Fintan Dunne
"Many medical professionals and health activists loudly proclaim that aspartame sweetener in diet sodas causes symptoms that mimic, or accentuate Parkinson's disease...
A prudent person might well have long ago eliminated the notorious additive from their diet. But, incredibly, Michael J. Fox seems to still be drinking the soda."
Green Light for Green Tea
from Health Scout News
"In our study, we demonstrate the inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols," on mechanisms directly involved in Parkinson's disease, says study author Dr. Tianhong Pan, a researcher from China who was working at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during the study.
Artificial Sweeteners in this web site.
Living with Parkinson's Disease
Excerpt from Lucky Man
by Michael J. Fox
An Interview with Annetta Freeman
by Steven Wm. Fowkes
Strategies for Parkinsonís Disease Therapy
by Annetta Freeman with Anne Fowkes
Parkinson's Disease: Medications
Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN) and Autoimmune Disease
from The National Parkinson Foundation
by Jean Pintar Hubble, M.D. and Richard C. Berchou, Pharm.D.
Mitochondrial Nutrition, Aging and Cognition
by Ward Dean, M.D., and Steven Wm. Fowkes
"Although antioxidant therapy is an obvious approach to deal with increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant levels, scientists and doctors have been slow to apply this technology. Researchers have started investigating the effect of vitamin E towards this end, but antioxidants are much more effective in combinations than they are singly. More importantly, vitamin E is lipid soluble and provides minimal antioxidant protection to the aqueous (watery) metabolic compartments of the brain that are stressed in Parkinsonís disease. It makes much better sense to employ a broad-spectrum antioxidant intervention which emphasizes water-soluble antioxidants like vitamin C, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, lipoate, NADH, DMSO, etc."
"Because LDN clearly halts progression in multiple sclerosis, its use has been more recently extended to other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) whose etiology remains unknown but for which there is suggestive evidence of a possible autoimmune mechanism."
Brain Stimulation Results Pinpointed in Parkinson's
by Nicolle Charbonneau
"The electrode-based therapy, called deep brain stimulation (DBS), seems to improve movement in patients even when levodopa, a drug commonly used to control the naturally produced compound of the same name, is not working."
Mitochondrial Function and Coenzyme Q10
in Parkinson's Disease
by Cliff Shults, M.D.
"Coenzyme Q10's dual functions as an integral member of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and as an anitioxidant make it potentially important in the treatment of PD because evidence has accumulated that both mitochondrial dysfunction and damage to nerve cells in the substantia nigra due to oxidative free radicals occur in PD."
Articles from Life Extension Foundation
Parkinson's Disease Treatment - Part 1
Causes, Conventional Treatment, Chemicals and Endotoxins, Nutritional Factors
Parkinson's Disease Treatment - Part 2
A More Effective Levodopa Therapy, Drug Holiday, The Diet, Conclusion
Phenylalanine And Tyrosine Dosing And Precautions
Should Parkinson's Patients Take CoQ10?
Abstracts of Dozens of Articles
Articles from Parkinson's Disease Chat & Message Boards
Green Tea Extract May Have Neuroprotective Effects in Parkinson's Disease
"Researchers from Israel have found that a phenolic compound in green tea is a strong neuroprotectant in two different models of Parkinson's disease."
New Treatment Improves Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
"Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease have shown dramatic improvements in the preliminary results of a small pilot study of a technique whereby a growth factor is pumped directly into dopamine deficient areas of the brain."
NADH and Parkinson's Disease
"Those looking for a treatment for Parkinson's disease have found that depending on the stage of the disease before treatment, NADH yields many improvements."
FDA Approves Expanded Use of Brain Implant
"Today, after review of additional studies conducted by the manufacturer, the agency approved the device, called the Activa Parkinson's Control System, for use in both sides of the brain to help reduce some of the other symptoms of advanced Parkinson's that cannot be adequately controlled with medication."
Folate Deficiency and Elevated Homocysteine Levels
Other Treatment Articles
Parkinson's Disease as Multifactorial Oxidative Neurodegeneration: Implications for Integrative Management
by Parris M. Kidd, Ph.D.
"Environmental agents implicated in the etiology of PD include pesticides, oxidant transition and heavy metals (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, lead, aluminum), and certain food-borne toxic agents, all of which can readily be categorized as oxidative stressor agents. What all these diverse agents have in common is their capacity to challenge the fragile antioxidant status of the SN and deplete its GSH content. The evidence strongly suggests glutathione depletion is the pivotal event in Parkinson's etiology."
Stem Cell Researchers See Hope In Autologous Transplant
from American Medical News
"Dr. Levesque's Parkinson's study, for instance, involved only one person -- although the results were remarkable. Before the stem cell transplant, his patient was nearly completely disabled. Afterwards, the patient is nearly fully functional."
Interview with Dr. Michel F. Levesque on Autologous Transplant
from Grassroots Connection
"The procedure involves the stimulation of stem cell growth into a mature neuron before reimplantation."
Nutritional Supplements for Parkinson's Disease
from Holistic Online.com
Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease
by David Perlmutter, M.D.
"The model that Dr. Perlmutter advances is an integrated model of neurodegeneration coupling genetics, environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and infection. The theme that Dr. Perlmutter develops is that many exposures can initiate an upregulation of the immune system, which in response releases the inflammatory cytokines. These in turn upregulate the expression of the immune inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. The increased production of nitric oxide in the microglia triggers the depletion of neuronal ATP which in turn increases the activity of xanthine oxidase. This enzyme converts purines to uric acid in the neuron with the production of the reactive oxygen species, superoxide. Superoxide then reacts with nitric oxide to yield peroxynitrite, which results in death of the cell."
Parkinsonís Disease and Glutathione
"The Hoffman Center is now offering IV glutathione therapy for early and late-stage Parkinsonís Disease patients. Largely through the work of Dr. David Perlmutter, we now have access to impressive clinical and laboratory data that demonstrate marked improvement in symptoms of PD with the use of this therapy."
Studies Being Conducted on Parkinson's
National Parkinson Foundation List
from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
American Parkinson Disease Association
Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute
Doctor's Guide to Parkinson's Disease Information & Resources
Holistic-online.com - Parkinson's Disease
Links from PD Index
Michael J. Fox Foundation for Research
Michael J. Fox Foundation for Research - Caregivers
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Parkinson Foundation
National Parkinson Foundation - U.S.A. Centers of Excellence
National Parkinson Foundation - Caregiver Resources
Parkinson's Disease Chat & Message Boards
Parkinson's Disease Foundation
World Parkinson Congress
Young Onset Parkinson's Association
from The New England Journal of Medicine
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