Coronary Disease

"Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death and impairment in America today. It is estimated that 1,100,000 new or recurrent coronary attacks occur per year in America. It affects close to 60 million Americans... The high mortality of the disease, widespread suffering, and huge economic impact demand an integrated medical approach and therapies."    The Life Extension Foundation

Heart Attack Symptoms

Heart attack symptoms: Know what signals a medical emergency.
from the
"Heart attack symptoms vary widely.  The symptoms you experience may be different from those experienced by a relative or neighbor. For instance, you may have only minor chest pain while someone else has excruciating pain.  In addition, women often have different heart attack symptoms than do men.

One thing applies to everyone, though: If you suspect you're having a heart attack, call for emergency medical help immediately.  Don't waste time trying to diagnose the symptoms yourself."

Heart Attack Symptoms
"Anyone who believes they are having a heart attack should not hesitate to call the emergency medical system."

New Diagnostic Test for Chest Pain Predicts Cardiac Risk up to Six Months Ahead
from the Cleveland Clinic - October 23, 2003
"Cleveland Clinic researchers have identified a new blood test to determine whether a person is in imminent danger of heart attack or death.  The test is especially valuable for identifying at-risk patients not recognized by current diagnostic laboratory testing."

"Other measures of arterial inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), also help doctors to gauge the risk of cardiac events. But in head-to-head comparisons in the emergency room setting, CRP testing was much less effective than MPO (myeloperoxidase)."

Heart Disease in Women

Heart Attack Symptoms in Women
from InteliHealth


Coronary Artery Disease
Mainstream approach.

Blood Tests for Heart Disease
"It's important to remember that one test alone does not determine your risk of heart disease and that the most important factors contributing to heart disease are smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. "

Coronary Artery Disease
by Andrew Weil, M.D.
Integrative approach.

Why Our Arteries Become Clogged As We Age
by John Colman

Articles from The Life Extension Foundation

Coronary Artery Disease and Atherosclerosis

Why Our Arteries Become Clogged As We Age
by John Colman

A Lethal Misconception of Epidemic Proportion
by William Faloon
"By failing to comprehend the underlying processes involved in circulatory breakdown, most doctors overlook documented methods of maintaining healthy blood flow in our maturing bodies."

Heart Disease - New Paradigms
A New Look at Sudden Heart Attacks
from the Cleveland Clinic Heart Center
"For decades, it has been accepted that most fatal coronary events are a consequence of the narrowing of the coronary arteries caused by the gradual buildup of hard, fatty plaque on the artery walls.  Angiography, atherectomy, and coronary artery bypass grafting are diagnostic and therapeutic procedures designed to detect and treat this condition before it becomes fatal.

The accepted wisdom, however, may be wrong.  New imaging techniques are verifying that the greater risk of heart attack comes from another type of plaque: soft fatty deposits that build up inside (not on) the walls of the coronary arteries.  Hidden in the artery walls, covered by a thin, fibrous cap, these unstable plaques don't narrow the artery or lessen the flow of blood.  But they do get infected.  And sometimes the fibrous cap that holds them in place breaks.  That's when the heart attack begins."

New Studies Question Value of Opening Arteries
by Gina Kolata, New York Times - March 21, 2004
"A new and emerging understanding of how heart attacks occur indicates that increasingly popular aggressive treatments may be doing little or nothing to prevent them."

Limitations of the Coronary Angiogram
by Howard H. Wayne, M.D.
"In spite of considerable evidence to the contrary, the general emphasis in cardiology today is on the anatomy of coronary artery disease; that is, which coronary arteries are involved, and how much narrowing or obstruction there is. Increasingly it is becoming apparent that the amount of narrowing of the coronary arteries is of only minor importance. Such narrowing does not correlate with the patient's symptoms, the motion of the muscular walls of the heart, the performance of the heart, the blood flow through the coronary arteries, the patient's prognosis, and the results of coronary artery bypass surgery. Importantly, when the angiograms of patients with stable and unstable angina are compared, there are no distinguishing anatomical differences to separate the two groups."

Experts Dispute Opposition to Dietary Fat
from The International Network Of Cholesterol Skeptics
"The proponents of the cholesterol campaign have never told the public about the huge weight of contradictory evidence."

A Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease
by Matthias Rath M.D. and Linus Pauling Ph.D.
"This disease is the direct consequence of the inability of man to synthesize ascorbate in combination with insufficient intake of ascorbate in the modern diet. Since ascorbate deficiency is the common cause of human CVD, ascorbate supplementation is the universal treatment for this disease. The available epidemiological and clinical evidence is reasonably convincing. Further clinical confirmation of this theory should lead to the abolition of CVD as a cause of human mortality for the present generation and future generations of mankind."


Heart Disease: Causative Factors by Linda Lazarides
Abstracts of Journal Articles Linking Diet to Heart Disease

How to Determine Your Cardiovascular Health
by Brian Vonk, M.D.
"The first and foundational step in gaining or maintaining cardiovascular health is accurately measuring your current condition. Once that is clearly understood, an effective treatment or preventative plan can be made. In this article, we'll review the most important factors indicating cardiovascular health or disease."

High Blood Cholesterol
Mainstream approach

Cholesterol and The Heart
Balanced approach

Cholesterol is NOT the Cause of Heart Disease
by Ron Rosedale, M.D.
"Detailed.   Recommended."

20% Of Heart Attacks Go Undetected -- How Can You Check Your Risk?
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"First of all, please understand that a total cholesterol level is very close to meaningless unless it is above 300. I have seen a number of people over 250 who actually were at low heart disease risk due to their HDL levels. Conversely, I have seen even more who had cholesterol levels under 200 that were at a very high risk of heart disease based on the following additional tests."

Heart Attack/Stroke Prevention
by Warren Matthews of Xtend-Your-Life Newsletter
(You will need Acrobat Reader.)
Detailed    Recommended

Milk and Other Dietary Influences on Coronary Heart Disease
by William B. Grant, Ph.D.
"These findings strongly suggest that to reduce the risk of Coronary Heart Disease mortality among males of all ages and females above the age of 65, non-fat milk consumption should be reduced and vitamin B supplementation should be increased. Consumption of simple sugars should be reduced by females below the age of 74, and probably by males and females of all ages."

New Cholesterol Guidelines for Converting Healthy People into Patients
by Uffe Ravnskov, M.D., Ph.D.
"Instead of preventing cardiovascular disease the new guidelines may increase the mortality of other diseases, transform healthy individuals into unhappy hypochondriacs obsessed with the chemical composition of their food and their blood..."

The Nutrition Heart Disease Link: More Than Cholesterol
by Joseph A. Debé, D.C.
"It may come as a surprise to learn that most people do not experience an elevation in blood cholesterol from eating large amounts of cholesterol. Excessive intake of certain dietary carbohydrates and fats is usually the cause of high blood cholesterol. In general, these carbohydrates include simple sugars and refined white flour, such as breads, pastas, cookies, cakes, candies, and sodas, including all those supposedly healthy fat and cholesterol-free prepared foods on supermarket shelves. What's more, excessive dietary carbohydrates can raise insulin levels, which is another risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The types of fats that can raise blood cholesterol are saturated fats, which are mostly found in animal sources, and hydrogenated vegetable oils, which are originally healthful fats that have been tinkered with by man to improve shelf life. Hydrogenated oils have been added to most commercially prepared foods."

High-Grain Diet May Increase Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"Researchers concluded that the low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet might not be ideal, as it can induce liver fat production and insulin resistance. This is especially true when most of the carbohydrate is in the form of simple sugars."

Mediterranean Diet Lowers Heart Risk
"A study conducted in India suggests that a Mediterranean-type diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and certain oils can reduce the risk of heart attack and death in people who already have heart disease."

Problems in The Bedroom Can Indicate Heart Problems
"Erectile dysfunction is not just a quality of life issue, but needs to be considered a significant public health concern associated with preventive cardiovascular medicine," states lead researcher and author of the article, Kevin Billups, MD. "The earlier a man is evaluated for ED, the better the outcome for maintaining good erectile function and good cardiovascular health."

Ear Lobe Crease May Indicate Artery Disease
from Patient Health International
"The researchers comment that the ear lobe crease is easy to identify, and that if this marker is found during examinations, then doctors should make prevention of cardiovascular disease a priority in such patients."

Earlobe Creases: A Risk Factor for Heart Disease
from Life Extension Foundation
"Researchers concluded that after adjusting for other risk factors, the presence of a unilateral earlobe crease was associated with a 33% increase in the risk of a heart attack; the risk increased to 77% when the earlobe crease appeared bilaterally."

VAP Cholesterol Testing Advanced Technology Uncovers Hidden Cardiovascular Risks
by Michael D. Ozner, M.D.
"The good news is, scientists have developed a more advanced blood test that can far more accurately gauge your risk of heart disease.  The Vertical Auto Profile (VAP) test augments the standard cholesterol profile with additional measurements that can identify the risk of cardiovascular disease."

See also Syndrome X in this web site.

Stress Test

Angina: A Patient Guide
Includes discussion of an exercise treadmill test (ETT), sometimes called a “stress test.”

When You Need to Have a Stress Test: A Patient Guide

Angiography/Angioplasty - Pro
Coronary Angioplasty: Opening Clogged Arteries
"Coronary angioplasty is a common medical procedure used to treat narrowings in the arteries that supply blood to your heart."

"Coronary angioplasty isn't considered a surgical procedure because it's less invasive than surgery — your body isn't surgically cut open. Rather, angioplasty uses tiny balloons threaded through a blood vessel in your groin up into a coronary artery to widen the area that has become blocked. In recent years, it's become standard to permanently place a small wire mesh tube (stent) inside the heart artery where the blockage was. The stent holds the artery open more widely and reduces the likelihood that the artery will renarrow in the same spot."

Advances in Coronary Angioplasty
by David R. Holmes, Jr., M.D.
"The preferred treatment has become the stent, a metallic scaffold introduced into the artery where it can mechanically hold open the artery. The first stents were relatively crude, cumbersome and inflexible. But they have improved dramatically. The current stents combine their mechanical ability to hold open the artery with drug delivery. The stents are coated with drugs and positioned in the artery, where they become part of the landscape."

Statins Before Procedures Reduce Cardiovascular Events And Deaths, Primarily For Patients With Inflammation
from American Heart Association
"The study findings suggest that it may be beneficial to delay non-emergency percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) among patients with high hsCRP levels, so these patients can be put on statins for at least two weeks before elective angioplasty procedures."

Angiography/Angioplasty - Con
Limitations of the Coronary Angiogram
by Howard H. Wayne, M.D.
"In spite of considerable evidence to the contrary, the general emphasis in cardiology today is on the anatomy of coronary artery disease; that is, which coronary arteries are involved, and how much narrowing or obstruction there is. Increasingly it is becoming apparent that the amount of narrowing of the coronary arteries is of only minor importance. Such narrowing does not correlate with the patient's symptoms, the motion of the muscular walls of the heart, the performance of the heart, the blood flow through the coronary arteries, the patient's prognosis, and the results of coronary artery bypass surgery. Importantly, when the angiograms of patients with stable and unstable angina are compared, there are no distinguishing anatomical differences to separate the two groups."

Reduced Kidney Function from Radiographic Contrast Agents
from Colorado Health Site
"Given the toxicity of radiographic contrast agents, you should ask your doctor whether there is another option for you. If there is no other option and you must have a contrast agent administered, you should take this study to your doctor and ask whether acetylcysteine administered as noted above, is appropriate for you."

Prevention of Kidney Damage from Contrast Agents During Coronary Angiography
from Colorado Health Site
"... oral acetylcysteine is a safe, effective, and inexpensive preventative treatment against acute kidney dysfunction for patients with moderate chronic kidney insufficiency undergoing coronary angiographic procedures."

Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Clinical Trials Rate Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography as Equal to X-ray Angiography
from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
"Three-dimensional coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is highly accurate in diagnosing coronary artery disease, while eliminating the risks and discomfort of the more traditional X-ray angiography procedure, according to a multi-center clinical trial headed by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and conducted at the BIDMC and six other sites around the world. The study results are reported in the Dec. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine."

Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Detection of Coronary Stenoses.
by Kim, Danias, et al.
"Among patients referred for their first x-ray coronary angiogram, three-dimensional coronary magnetic resonance angiography allows for the accurate detection of coronary artery disease of the proximal and middle segments. This noninvasive approach reliably identifies (or rules out) left main coronary artery or three-vessel disease."

Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography
by Peter G. Danias
Technical analysis for doctors.

Electron-Beam Computed Tomography
Diagnosing Heart Disease: Electron Beam (Ultrafast) CT
from WebMD
"State-of-the-art computerized tomography (CT) methods, such as this one, are the most effective way to detect coronary calcification from atherosclerosis, before symptoms develop."

Expert Consensus on Electron-Beam Computed Tomography - 2000
from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association
"Selected use of coronary calcium scores when a physician is faced with the patient with intermediate coronary disease risk may be appropriate."

Calcium Scan Predicts Heart Attack Risk in Physically Fit - 2001
from the American Heart Association
"An electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scan was able to identify individuals at elevated risk for a heart attack who did not fit the usual high-risk profile."

Electron Beam CT Helps with Risk Assessment - 2003
from the American Heart Association
"Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans can help doctors predict whether otherwise-healthy people with risk factors such as high blood pressure or elevated cholesterol will develop heart disease..."

Track Your Plaque
from William R. Davis, M.D. and John Rumberger, M.D.
"Tracking your plaque tells you whether you have coronary plaque, how much, and what the future holds.  It is a real-world method of managing heart disease risk that anybody can follow."

The Mixed Blessing Of Heart CT Scans - 2004
by Thomas H. Lee, M.D.
"The newest CT heart scans are clearly an exciting advance. However, we have to first learn how the test will improve our health. Similar to any diagnostic test, doctors and patients should know what questions they want answered from a heart CT scan. Just to find out if you may have some mild blockages at any given time is not a diagnostic question. It is an unproven screening test."

The Thyroid Connection

Undiagnosed Thyroid Disease May Be Reason for Your High Cholesterol
"As many as ten million Americans with high cholesterol levels may not know that their cholesterol is elevated due to undiagnosed thyroid problems."

Low Thyroid Increases Heart Risk
"Older women with subclinical hypothyroidism were almost twice as likely as women without this condition to have blockages in the aorta. They were also twice as likely to have had heart attacks."


from American Heart Association

Cholesterol and Triglycerides
by Richard N. Fogoros, M.D.

Triglycerides May Predict Heart Risk
1997 Article by Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"A new study suggests that level of triglyceride in the blood may help predict heart attack risk as well as other more well-known blood fats such as LDL and HDL cholesterol.  High triglycerides alone increased the risk of heart attack nearly three-fold, according to a report in the current issue of Circulation."

Fasting Triglycerides, High-Density Lipoprotein, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction
by J. Michael Gaziano, M.D., et al.
1997 Article in Circulation
" ... our data indicate that elevated fasting TG represent a useful marker for risk of CHD, particularly when HDL levels are considered.  The strong association of the ratio of TG/HDL with risk of CHD suggests a metabolic interaction between the TG- and cholesterol ester–rich lipoproteins in increasing risk of MI ..."

Do Triglycerides Provide Meaningful Information About Heart Disease?
by Andrew L. Avins, M.D. and John M. Neuhaus, Ph.D.
2000 Article in Archives of Internal Medicine
"These data suggest that, in men, measurement of serum triglyceride levels does not provide clinically meaningful information about CHD risk beyond that obtainable by measurement of serum cholesterol subfractions alone."

Carbs Are Primary Cause of High Triglycerides
by Joseph Mercola, D.O. and Rachael Droege

See discussion of Syndrome X in this web site.


Homocysteine: A New Risk Factor For Heart Disease
by Allan Magaziner, D.O.
"Have you ever wondered why some people with normal or even low-normal cholesterol levels may be stricken with a heart attack? Most of us are aware that while total cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, other factors such as diabetes, hypertension and cigarette smoking also play a vital role. Some of us, however, may not have any of these risk factors and, yet, suffer from coronary atherosclerosis and, possibly a heart attack (myocardial infarction). The hidden culprit may be elevated levels of homocysteine."

Startling New Findings About Homocysteine
from Life Extension Foundation

Homocysteine and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence on Causality From a Meta-Analysis
by David S Wald, Malcolm Law, and Joan K Morris
"Our results strengthen the evidence that a raised serum homocysteine concentration is a cause of cardiovascular disease."

C-Reactive Protein
Doctors Using New Test To Watch For Heart Disease
from Intelihealth
"People worried about their chance of getting heart disease may soon become familiar with the concept of C-reactive protein. CRP indicates a person's blood vessels may be swollen, a condition national experts have now shown to be a key risk factor for heart attack."

Inflammation, Heart Disease and Stroke: The Role of C-Reactive Protein
from American Heart Association
"Researchers have found that blood levels of CRP are elevated many years before a first heart attack or stroke."

C-Reactive Protein: A Better Diagnostic Tool Than Cholesterol for Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk
from Life Extension Foundation
"A chronic inflammatory state, as evidenced by elevated C-reactive protein, results in significant damage to the arterial system."

C-Reactive Protein and Prognosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Editorial by G. J. Blake and P. M. Ridker
"In sum, the current data from de Winter et al. provides further evidence that CRP may be useful for risk stratification among patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention."

More Bad News On Estrogen Drugs and Heart Health
from Life Extension Foundation

Lipoprotein(a) and Fibrinogen

Inflammation and Heart Disease
from the Life Extension Foundation
"A growing consensus amongst scientists is that common disorders such as atherosclerosis, colon cancer and Alzheimer’s disease are all caused in part by a chronic inflammatory syndrome."

New Test Helps Predict Heart Disease in Low-Risk Patients
from Baylor College of Medicine
"Unfortunately, many people with ‘normal’ LDL cholesterol (or bad cholesterol) are not targeted for preventive therapies, because they are not considered at risk for heart disease," said Ballantyne.  "However, we found that even if patients have normal LDL levels, they are at increased risk for heart disease if they have high levels of either CRP or Lp-PLA2."

Articles by Joseph Mercola, D.O.
Bacteria's Role in Heart Disease Discovered

Bacteria and Viral Exposure Linked to Heart Disease

Antibiotic Tested As Heart Disease Treatment

Antibiotics Help Prevent Heart Attacks


Alternatives to Bypass Surgery and Angioplasty
by Howard H. Wayne, M.D.
"The efficacy of surgery and angioplasty is not only greatly overrated, but the results of both are unpredictable. Mortality and frequency of complications are much greater than what the patient is led to believe, and many patients are worse off after surgery."

Comparison of Invasive Versus Noninvasive Therapies
by Howard H. Wayne, M.D.
"In spite of these selection biases heavily favoring surgical intervention, almost every single study described in the following pages clearly and unequivocally demonstrates that invasive treatment, be it bypass surgery or angioplasty, fail to reduce heart attacks and mortality when compared to patients who have been conservatively treated with medication."

See also discussion of Bypass Surgery versus Chelation Therapy in this web site.

Drug-Eluting Stents (Drug Coated Stents)
Drug-Eluting Stents - Background

Cordis Corporation Issues a Health Care Professional Letter Regarding the CYPHER Stent
FDA Press Release - July 8, 2003
"The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is carefully reviewing the reports of adverse events and is working closely with the company to determine the exact causes and reduce the incidence of thrombosis. From the reports received so far, it is unclear what effect the CYPHER stent has on thrombosis risk and what factors may contribute to the risk."

Information for Physicians on Sub-acute Thromboses (SAT) and Hypersensitivity Reactions with Use of the Cordis CYPHER™ Coronary Stent
FDA Public Health Web Notification - October 29, 2003
"FDA and Cordis are gathering as much information as we can about the circumstances surrounding both SATs and hypersensitivity reactions. FDA is also working with the regulatory bodies of other countries to gain more information about foreign experience with the product."

Updated Information for Physicians on Sub-acute Thromboses (SAT) and Hypersensitivity Reactions with Use of the Cordis CYPHER™ Sirolimus-eluting Coronary Stent
FDA Public Health Web Notification - November 25, 2003
"We are continuing to evaluate all available information from the MDR reports as well as other sources. We will provide updates on the numbers of MDR reports we receive on SATs or hypersensitivity associated with the CYPHER stent as warranted."

Final Update of Information for Physicians on Sub-acute Thromboses (SAT) and Hypersensitivity Reactions with Use of the Cordis CYPHER™ Sirolimus-eluting Coronary Stent
FDA Public Health Web Notification - October 18, 2004
"Information from this registry, along with FDA review of comparable bare-metal stent data, leads us to conclude that the Cypher stent, when implanted in accordance with the approved indications for use, is not associated with an excess of SATs compared to bare-metal stents. SAT remains a relatively rare event that occurs within the first 30 days following the stenting procedure. Based on our review of data from the registry as well as the MDR system, it appears that the reported rate of SATs is not greater now than it was during the premarket clinical trials, and is within the expected rate for any stent."

Unraveling the CYPHER™
An Editorial on the FDA Warnings about Johnson & Johnson's Drug Eluting Stent

CYPHER™ Sirolimus-eluting Coronary Stent: Delivers on Clinical Promise
from Johnson and Johnson

Study Shows Low Incidence of Adverse Events Associated With CYPHER® Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent
from Johnson and Johnson

New Stents Tied to Rare Heart Attack Risk
by Ed Edelson in HealthDay
"The new drug-coated stents implanted to keep arteries open might increase the risk of a later heart attack if a patient stops taking clot-preventing drugs such as aspirin even briefly, Dutch cardiologists warn."

Articles by Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D.

Antioxidant Vitamins Prevent Heart Disease: Verification from the American Heart Association

How Antioxidants Protect Against Heart Disease - Part 1

How Antioxidants Protect Against Heart Disease - Part 2

Nutrient Interaction in Heart Disease
Interview with Dr. David Kritchevsky

New Recognition for Vitamin E & Health Benefits
Interview with Dr. Lawrence J. Machlin

Coenzyme Q10

Introduction To Coenzyme Q10
by Peter H. Langsjoen, M.D.
Detailed.   Recommended.

Coenzyme Q10
by Michael B. Schachter M.D.
"A most ironic situation occurs with the cholesterol lowering drug Mevacor or lovastatin. This drug is given to lower LDL cholesterol levels in order to reduce risks of a heart attack. However, this drug clearly lowers CoQ10 levels in the tissues, thus increasing risk for heart disease. Certainly, anyone taking Mevacor or similar type drugs should be on a significant dosage of CoQ10. Similarly, the beta blockers, drugs that are used extensively to treat heart disease, high blood pressure and other conditions, also deplete the heart and other tissues of CoQ10. Unfortunately, most cardiologists and other conventional physicians in the United States are unaware of this fact and do not give patients on these drugs supplements of CoQ10."

Making Old Hearts Young Again
from Life Extension Foundation
"Heart attacks and other types of heart disease affect older people to a much greater extent than the young. Young hearts bounce back much better from stress and damage, even the stress of treatment itself. However, treatment with coenzyme Q10 is demonstrating its ability to radically improve the heart's ability to recover from disease and stress."

Usefulness of Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Cardiology: A Long-Term Study
by P. H. Langsjoen H, et al. in Molecular Aspects of Medicine
"CoQ10 is a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for a broad range of cardiovascular diseases, producing gratifying clinical responses while easing the medical and financial burden of multidrug therapy."

Cardiologists Overlook Lifesaving Discovery
Editorial by William Faloon
"Dr. Whitaker asserts that most patients and doctors do not realize that statin drugs block the production of coenzyme Q10. Dr. Whitaker went on to describe how coenzyme Q10 has been found to be essential for cellular energy production as well as for the functioning of the heart muscle. According to Dr. Whitaker: “Statin drugs have proven in clinical trials to deplete coenzyme Q10, the ‘sparkplugs’ of the human body. Patients who take statin drugs without coenzyme Q10, particularly those with a history of heart disease, are especially prone to developing complications that can have fatal consequences.”

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
from American Heart Association
"Increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake through foods is preferable.  However, coronary artery disease patients may not be able to get enough omega-3 by diet alone. These people may want to talk to their doctor about taking a supplement.  Supplements also could help people with high triglycerides, who need even larger doses."

Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease
"Omega 3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils can protect against coronary heart disease."
"There is evidence to support the use of fish or fish oil supplements after myocardial infarction."

Cardiovascular Benefits of Omega-3 Fats
from Joseph Mercola, D.O.

Effect Of Fish-Oil Concentrate On Lipids In Postmenopausal Women
from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Other Supplements

Vitamin Supplementation Lowers C-Reactive Protein Levels
from Cooper Aerobics Center
"A study published this month in The American Journal of Medicine states that an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, C-reactive protein (CRP), can be reduced by simply consuming a multivitamin."

Cardiologists Take Vitamin E and Recommend it to Their Patients
from Natural Health Line

A Critical Analysis of The National Academy of Sciences' Attack on Dietary Supplements
from the Life Extension Foundation

Folic Acid for Heart Health
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.

Is Arginine a "Magic Bullet" for the Heart?
from WholeHealthMD

Red Yeast Rice
from University of Maryland Medicine

Red Yeast Rice

by Robert L. Pastore, Ph.D.

Policosanol Scientific Abstracts 2002
from The

Male Hormone Replacement Therapy Could Fight Heart Disease
from BBC News

Improve Your Sex Life and Protect Against Heart Attack
from Life Extension Foundation
"The most profound effect that testosterone has in the body may be its ability to prevent atherosclerosis and heart attack. A series of new studies reveal that testosterone is a critical missing link that cardiologists are failing to account for in treating those with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure."

"Those with androgen-dependent prostate cancer should not use any kind of testosterone-enhancing therapy especially if blood tests reveal a severe state of testosterone deficiency."

Enhancing Cardiac Energy with Ribose
by Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D., and James C. Roberts, M.D.
"D-ribose is the new kid on the heart supplement block.  As a building block of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), it rapidly restores depleted energy in sick hearts."


Daily Aspirin Therapy: Is It For You?

Aspirin in Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention
from American Heart Association

Baby Aspirin Recommended for Heart
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.

Aspirin May Cause More Harm Than Good
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.

Aspirin Not Recommended for Heart Disease Anymore
by Dr. John G F Cleland

Wine and Alcohol

Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease
from American Heart Association

Alcohol and Heart Disease
by Thomas A. Pearson, M.D., Ph.D.

Alcohol For Heart Attack and Heart Failure Protection?
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.

Statin Drugs - Pro
The Statin Drugs
by Richard N. Fogoros, M.D.
"Statins are drugs that improve cholesterol levels primarily by inhibiting the liver enzyme called "HMG C-A reductase." Statins have proven to be very effective in reducing cholesterol and in reducing the risk of heart attack and death. For this reason, and because they are generally well tolerated, they have become some of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States. Even so, recent federal guidelines indicate that statins are significantly underused, and that millions more Americans would benefit from them."

Strong Statin Therapy Reverses Plaque Build-up in Arteries
from American Heart Association
"Reducing bad cholesterol to below “optimal” levels reversed the accumulation of artery-clogging plaque, according to a study in today’s rapid access issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association."

Statins Decrease The Risk of Heart Attacks by Reducing C-Reactive Protein Levels
from Colorado Health Site
"The authors highlight 2 findings of their study. First, in a large population of apparently healthy men and women, C-reactive protein levels can be used to determine the risk of acute coronary events. Those with higher C-reactive protein levels are at higher risk for heart attacks. Second, lovastatin was highly effective in reducing the risk of acute coronary events in participants with elevated C-reactive protein levels and normal cholesterol levels. Thus, C-reactive protein levels may provide a cost-effective method for targeting statin therapy for those at high risk of heart attacks."

Statin Drugs - Con

Cholesterol & Statin Drugs: Separating Hype from Reality
by William Davis, M.D.
"Unfortunately, the statins’ success in lowering cholesterol has led many people to believe they represent a cure-all for cholesterol and heart disease risk.  They are not, however, a cure-all.  To get at the truth about statins, we need to dig deeper."

"We must step back for a moment and recognize that statin therapy for high cholesterol is just one piece of a bigger picture. Heart disease has many other risk factors, and there are many other ways to reduce risk and identify people at risk."

Statin Medications: What Are the Side Effects?
"Statins have many benefits. In some people, they can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Like all medications, statins have potential side effects.
Although statins are well tolerated by most people, the most common side effects are: Nausea, Diarrhea, Constipation and Muscle aching. In addition, two Potentially serious side effects are: Elevated liver enzymes and Statin myopathy.

On Statin Drugs
by Beatrice A. Golomb, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Beatrice A. Golomb is the Principal Investigator of the NIH study. In this interview, Dr. Golomb answers questions posed to her by Janet Williams, Colorado HealthSite librarian.

Commentary: Statin Drugs and Coenzyme Q10
by Bernd Wollschlaeger, M.D.

Statin Drugs - A Critical Review of the Risk/Benefit Clinical Research
by Joel M. Kauffman, Ph.D.
"Careful examination of the literature on statin drugs reveals false premises, minimal to no benefits, serious side-effects leading to very low adherence rates, and safer, low-cost alternatives for prevention of Coronary Heart Disease deaths."

Bad News About Statin Drugs
by Chris Gupta
Articles, opinions and especially Readers' Comments.

Half of Population Will be Taking Statins - Danger Ahead
by Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"There are likely to be some people who benefit from them, but it is probably far less than 5% of the people who currently take them. These are individuals with total cholesterol above 350 who have inherited liver processing problems.

If these individuals take the statin drugs however, they should also take Coenzyme Q 10, which is important for heart health and, like cholesterol, is reduced when one takes these drugs."

Statin Drugs Kill
by Peter H. Langsjoen, M.D.
"In my practice of 17 years in Tyler, Texas, I have seen a frightening increase in heart failure secondary to statin usage, "statin cardiomyopathy". Over the past five years, statins have become more potent, are being prescribed in higher doses, and are being used with reckless abandon in the elderly and in patients with "normal" cholesterol levels. We are in the midst of a CHF epidemic in the US with a dramatic increase over the past decade. Are we causing this epidemic through our zealous use of statins? In large part I think the answer is yes."

Statins - Is the Danger in the Dose?
by Jay S. Cohen, M.D. in Dr. Mercola's Web Site
"These excellent responses at very low doses require drug manufacturers and physicians to treat patients as individuals, not statistical averages. And to remember that the best dosage is the lowest effective dosage. Unfortunately, the trend within the drug industry and medical community has been in the opposite direction. Thus, serious problems were all but inevitable."

Dr. Dean Ornish's Approach

Initial Study Was Greeted by Skepticism
by Tim Friend

Comments on Dean Ornish's Changes in Lifestyle Program
from JAMA

Exercise Combats Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults - December 21, 2004
from Johns Hopkins Medicine
"Researchers at Johns Hopkins have determined that in people age 55 to 75, a moderate program of physical exercise can significantly offset the potentially deadly mix of risk factors for heart disease and diabetes known as the metabolic syndrome."

Exercise Like a Drug in Heart Disease, Study Finds - January 27, 2003
"Exercise can act like a drug on the blood vessels, reducing the risk of heart disease by literally getting the blood flowing, US researchers said on Thursday.  It works in a surprising way, reducing inflammation, which has recently joined high blood pressure and high cholesterol as a leading known cause of heart disease, the researchers said.  The blood stresses the walls of blood vessels as it passes over them, reducing inflammation in a way similar to high doses of steroids, the researchers report in Friday's issue of Circulation Research."

Exercise Cuts Inflammation-Related Protein in Blood - December 2, 2002
"Exercise is good for you for a number of reasons, and now researchers think they have found yet one more. Men who are physically fit tend to have lower levels of a protein linked to body-wide inflammation, new research reports."

Running, Weight Training Healthy for Heart - October 23, 2002
"While the total amount of exercise is important - more being better - new study findings suggest that turning exercise up a notch in intensity can lower the risk of heart disease in men even further.  And running, weight training, rowing and brisk walking seem particularly helpful for heart health, according to the report released Tuesday."

Exercise May Lower Blood Vessel Inflammation - August 28, 2002
"The results of this study showed that physical activity is inversely associated with C- reactive protein concentrations, suggesting that physical activity may mitigate inflammation," Earl S. Ford, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, reports in the September issue of Epidemiology.

External Counterpulsation (EECP)
"External Counterpulsation (EECP) is a nonpharmacologic, noninvasive, electromechanical technique approved for patients with angina pectoris - chest pain due to severe, symptomatic coronary artery disease - who have failed standard treatments and who cannot (or will not) undergo conventional procedures such as surgical bypass or angioplasty."
Lawson, Hui, Oster, et al.

"EECP is a mechanical procedure in which long inflatable cuffs (like blood pressure cuffs) are wrapped around both of the patient's legs. While the patient lies on a bed, the leg cuffs are inflated and deflated with each heartbeat. This is accomplished by means of a computer, which triggers off the patient's ECG so that the cuffs deflate just as each heartbeat begins, and inflate just as each heartbeat ends. When the cuffs inflate they do so in a sequential fashion, so that the blood in the legs is "milked" upwards, toward the heart."
Richard N. Fogoros

Secret Cardiology - EECP
"A useful treatment for angina your cardiologist doesn't want to hear about."

Frequently Asked Questions
from ECP Network

A Non-Invasive Alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
from Life Extension Foundation
"People are willing to subject themselves to the hazards of surgery instead of going for a gentler remedy. Why? Because that is how they've have been trained, that the quick and dramatic is better, even in the face of great risk of death or surgical catastrophe and the high probability of relapse. While some doctors are going back to the older approach of "let the body heal itself" using time-tested clinical acumen and intuition to make a diagnosis, in the U.S the predominant philosophy is still "more care" equals "real care.""

Vasomedical Inc.
"The pioneer and world leader in the design and development of external counterpulsation systems."
New and Experimental Treatments

New Laser Treatment May Help Relieve Angina

New Laser Heart Procedure
from Heart Information Network

First Nonsurgical Heart Bypass
from Circulation


American College for Advancement in Medicine

American College of Cardiology

American Heart Association

Ask NOAH about Heart Disease

Life Extension Foundation

Dr. Stephen Sinatra

Recommended Links from Cardiovascular Consultants Medical Group
A metadirectory of web sites for health professionals and patients. Exhaustive.

Abstracts of Articles from The Atkins Center

Articles from The New England Journal of Medicine

Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Sinatra on Stents, Statins, Diet and Vitamin K2 3-28-07

Dr. Fuhrman on Diet and Heart Disease 1-17-07

Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Sinatra on Heart Disease 12-1-06

Dr. Fuhrman on Heart Disease and Diet 11-22-06

Dr. Hoffman and Dr. Sinatra on Heart Disease 9-22-06

Dr. Fratellone on Heart Disease 6-09-06


Please click on the picture of the book or the title to order.

Seth Baum, M.D., The Total Guide to a Healthy Heart: Integrative Strategies for Preventing and Reversing Heart Disease

Elmer Cranton, M.D., Bypassing Bypass: The New Technique of Chelation Therapy, a Non-Surgical Treatment for Improving Circulation and Slowing the Aging Process
Robert Crayhon, Ph.D., The Carnitine Miracle: The Supernutrient Program That Promotes High Energy, Fat Burning, Heart Health, Brain Wellness, and Longevity

Robert Fried, Ph.D. and Woodson C. Merrell, M.D., The Arginine Solution: The First Guide to America's New Cardio-Enhancing Supplement


Richard Kilmer McCully, M.D., The Heart Revolution: The B Vitamin Breakthrough That Lowers Homocysteine, Cuts Your Risk of Heart Disease, and Protects Your Health

Dean Ornish, M.D., Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease: The Only System Scientifically Proven to Reverse Heart Disease


Mehmet Oz, M.D., Healing from the Heart: A Leading Heart Surgeon Explores the Power of Complementary Medicine

Stephen Sinatra, M.D., Coenzyme Q10 Miracle Treatment: New Hope for the Heart, Cancer, Diabetes, and More


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