"We must appreciate that what we call "hypertension" is a powerful indicator of disease in other body systems, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, that may exist prior to and progress independently of the hypertension itself and insulin resistance, reflecting the same underlying pathophysiology in skeletal muscle, fat, and other tissues. Thus, the disease we call hypertension is not just a blood pressure reduction or numbers game. We must consider the treatment of associated disease to treat hypertension successfully.

Ultimately the goal would be to identify underlying disease - not only the elevation of blood pressure, but also the other multisystemic aspects of hypertensive cardiovascular disease-and implement an integrated medical approach as well. Focusing on such underlying factors would allow treatment of the disease process itself, rather than just the elevated blood pressure."    Life Extension Foundation


What Is High Blood Pressure?

High Blood Pressure
by Ronald Hoffman, M.D.
"With regard to treatment of high blood pressure, I generally reserve medications for only the most challenging patients or for those unwilling to go through the complex lifestyle adjustments that may be necessary to overcome their tendency towards high blood pressure. New medications abound but most cause side effects. Simply providing hypertensives with a quick drug fix deters them from making necessary healthy adjustments in diet, exercise and stress coping."

Common Misconceptions about High Blood Pressure
from American Heart Association

Life Extension Foundation

Overview, Etiology, Anatomy and Physiology, Pathophysiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nutritional Therapy, Functional Medicine, Scientific Summary, General Precautions, Summary

"The purpose of this discussion is to ultimately substantiate and provide a protocol that can be followed that will prevent the development of hypertension, and thus, the development of hypertensive vascular disease and its subsequent and allied disease states."

Detailed and Recommended


Hypertension: Causative Factors by Linda Lazarides
Abstracts of Journal Articles Linking Diet to Hypertension.

Even Mild Stress Can Raise Blood Pressure
from HeartCenterOnline
"Now, in a "real-world" setting, a research team in Italy has confirmed that mild stress can increase blood pressure and impair the cardiovascular system's ability to regulate itself."

Secondary High Blood Pressure: When Another Disease or Condition Is to Blame


Pharmacology And Toxicology
from Life Extension Foundation
"The best selling or most popular antihypertensive drugs are not the most effective."

Do You Really Have Hypertension and Do You Need Medication? - Part 1
by Bill Sardi

Do You Really Have Hypertension and Do You Need Medication? - Part 2
by Bill Sardi

Calcium Channel Blockers Can Actually Cause Heart Disease
"Postmenopausal women taking a certain class of blood pressure medicines known as calcium channel blockers better proceed with caution.  Researchers found that the use of such medications may double the risk of dying from heart disease -- especially when given in certain combinations."

Tenormin (atenolol) for Hypertension, A Good Choice?
"Our results cast doubts on atenolol (Tenormin) as a suitable drug for hypertensive patients.  Moreover, they challenge the use of atenolol (Tenormin) as a reference drug in outcome trials in hypertension."

High Blood Pressure Drugs & Diuretics
"The study found that treating elderly people who have high blood pressure with the drugs, called diuretics, lowered their rate of death from heart attacks and strokes over the long haul -- even among those who developed diabetes while taking the pills.

Although the results affirm the overall safety record of diuretics, several experts said they are still likelier to turn to other blood pressure drugs, especially among patients who are at risk for acquiring the blood sugar disorder."

Articles by Stephen Sinatra, M.D.


Promote Healthy Blood Pressure in 90 Days
"How you manage your high blood pressure depends on your personal profile. Here are some general guidelines."

Week One: Focus on Your Diet
"There is no lifestyle modification more powerful than diet. My nutrition recommendations are based on the Mediterranean way of eating, which has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiac events by 76 percent."

Week Two: Get Up and Move!
"New studies show that moderate activities such as regular walking, dancing, swimming, golf, and tennis can reduce blood pressure significantly. In fact, exercise is crucial to lowering blood pressure and keeping it low. No other lifestyle change will provide such immediate and enduring benefits to your health and well-being."

Week Three: Begin Taking Targeted Supplements
Coenzyme Q10, Magnesium + Calcium, Fish Oil, Garlic, Hawthorn

Week Four: Overcome Anger and Tend to Your Spirit
"Basically, repressed anger, frustration, and fear are hidden risk factors for heart disease and hypertension."

Articles on Nutrition

Natural Approach to Hypertension
by Farhang Khosh, N.D. and Mehdi Khosh, N.D.
"Lifestyle change, including diet, exercise, and stress management, may contribute significantly to lowering of blood pressure. Supplements such as potassium, magnesium, CoQ10, omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids L-arginine and taurine, and vitamins C and E have been effectively used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension."

Effects of Dietary Patterns on Blood Pressure
from Archives of Internal Medicine
"The DASH combination diet may be an effective strategy for preventing and treating hypertension in a broad cross section of the population, including segments of the population at highest risk for blood pressure–related cardiovascular disease."

Low-Fat, Low-Salt Diet Cuts Blood Pressure
from HeartCenterOnline
"A low-fat diet full of fruits and vegetables but little salt can lead to a significant drop in blood pressure--even in people with normal blood pressure--study findings show."

Nutritional Influences on Illness
by Melvyn R. Werbach, M.D.
Brief article on the importance of adequate dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium to prevent and treat hypertension.

The Importance of Magnesium to Human Nutrition
by Michael B. Schachter M.D.
"Magnesium is an extremely important and valuable mineral, whose value for good health is just being recognized by conventional physicians."

Vitamin C Can Reduce High Blood Pressure
from the Linus Pauling Institute
"Researchers have discovered that a 500 milligram daily supplement of vitamin C can significantly reduce high blood pressure in hypertensive patients."

Antioxidant May Help Lower Blood Pressure
"The study shows that people with high blood pressure who took the supplement, called Pycnogenol, were able to lower their daily dose of blood pressure-lowering medications by more than 30% while still keeping their blood pressure within normal levels."

Melatonin: A New Wonder Drug?
By Sarah Ebner
"New research suggests that melatonin could also lower high blood pressure — or hypertension — a condition that can lead to heart problems and stroke and which affects an estimated one billion people worldwide."

Managing Stress Reduces Blood Pressure
"According to the findings of a trial published in ... Archives of Internal Medicine, stress reduction significantly lowered blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure (hypertension). In that trial, psychologists provided ten hours of individualized stress management instruction to 60 adult hypertensive patients."
Articles from on Exercise

Benefits of Regular Activity

Aerobic Exercise Lowers Blood Pressure Most Effectively

Why Does Exercise Lower Blood Pressure?


Articles from The New England Journal of Medicine

See Heart Disease on this Web Site


Please click on the picture of the book or the title to order.

Seth Baum, M.D., The Total Guide to a Healthy Heart: Integrative Strategies for Preventing and Reversing Heart Disease

Thomas J. Moore, M.D., The Dash Diet for Hypertension: Lower Your Blood Pressure in 14 Days--Without Drugs
Dean Ornish, M.D., Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease: The Only System Scientifically Proven to Reverse Heart Disease Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D., Mayo Clinic on High Blood Pressure

Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D. and Jan Demarco Sinatra, Lower Your Blood Pressure in Eight Weeks: A Revolutionary Program for a Longer, Healthier Life

Julian Whitaker, M.D., Reversing Hypertension: A Vital New Program to Prevent, Treat, and Reduce High Blood Pressure

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