"What has been known for more than a half century is that vitamins even in properly chosen megadoses (and macro- and micro-mineral supplements) can greatly improve the long term health and well-being of many persons eating their ordinary diets.  Some of these older observations that vitamins can improve health are just being rediscovered as if they were brand new scientific findings."

William Kaufman, M.D., Ph.D.

Vitamins, Immune Response and Safety
Interview with Adrianne Bendich, Ph.D.
"All of the major researchers from around the world attended and the take-home message was that well before signs of vitamin deficiency are obvious, immune system reactions have been significantly decreased.  Thus, the immune system appears to have higher micronutrient requirements than other organs or tissues of the body."

Vitamin Deficiency, Megadoses, and Some Supplemental History
by William Kaufman, M.D., Ph.D.

"In over a half century, a huge medical literature is available on the diagnosis of vitamin deficiencies and the safe therapeutic use of vitamins even when some were used in megadoses."

"If doctors want to know the long term effects of various vitamin megadoses, they have to go back and study the literature.  Since most articles and books on this subject cannot be found by electronic means, it requires that they make such a literature search manually."

Answer to the Media Attack on Supplements
by William Faloon
from Life Extension Foundation
Detailed article on the science behind the headlines.

Drug Induced Nutrient Depletions
by David Riley, M.D.
“Emerging data indicates that nutrient depletions may be associated with commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals. The addition of a superior well balanced, bio-available multi-vitamin/mineral formula is one potential solution to this increasingly prevalent problem.”

A Critical Analysis of The National Academy of Sciences' Attack on Dietary Supplements
by William Faloon
from Life Extension Foundation
"The press release issued by the National Academy of Sciences used to promote the 512-page book said:

"Insufficient evidence exists to support claims that taking megadoses of dietary antioxidants, such as selenium and vitamins C and E, or carotenoids, including beta-carotene, can prevent chronic diseases."

This statement, however, is contradicted by published findings presented in the 512-page book itself showing disease risk reduction benefits to vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and the carotenoids.

The 512-page book omitted many other positive published studies about these supplements. When these omissions are added to the favorable findings that were reported on in the book, it is difficult to ascertain how anyone concerned about protecting their health would not supplement with vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and the carotenoids."

The AMA Crosses the Line (Recommending Multivitamins)
by Rebecca Ephraim, R.D., C.C.N.
"My initial reaction was, "It's about time!" The JAMA cited references from 152 scientific sources.  Interestingly, one-third of them were published either before or during 1995.  And another 69 were published before the year 2000. So the fact of the matter is, this article could have been written with ample supporting evidence well before we clicked into the 2000s."

Articles from
If You Have Been Told That Vitamins Are Harmful, Please Read This
by Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D.
Detailed.   Recommended.

Ten Ways to Spot Anti-Vitamin Biases in a Scientific Study
by Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D.

Facts and Factoids: An Information Sheet for Patients
by Abram Hoffer M.D. Ph.D.
"The factoids about vitamins, used in optimum doses when needed, are not true, are not based upon clinical evidence, do not have any studies including double blind controlled clinical data to support them, and are used primarily to attack the new paradigm, the vitamins-as-treatment paradigm.  Be wary of factoids whether they are in print, on the internet, in the news media, on radio or on television."

Importance of Calcium And Vitamin D for Healthier, Happier Living
by Candy Ostman
from Life Extension Foundation
"Calcium requirements vary throughout an individual's lifetime.  The times of greatest need are during adolescence, pregnancy and in the later years of maturity.  The need for calcium is largely determined by one's skeletal requirements.

Calcium absorption is closely related to vitamin D intake and its status in the body, particularly the serum calcitriol level."

Calcium: Keep What You Take
by William Faloon
from Life Extension Foundation
"While calcium by itself can prevent some bone loss, there are other critical minerals that should be supplemented for the long-term prevention of osteoporosis."

Cancer Prevention, Calcium and Vitamin D
from Dartmouth Medical School
"The nutrients calcium and vitamin D work in tandem, not separately, to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to a new Dartmouth Medical School study reported in the Dec. 3 issue of Journal of the National Cancer Institute."

Coenzyme Q10
See subject covered on this web site.

Coenzyme Q10
by Michael B. Schachter M.D.
"Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 is an extremely important nutrient that every cell in your body must have in order to produce energy. Although present in food, CoQ10 is not considered a vitamin because the body is able to make it from raw materials contained in food.  Nevertheless, the body often cannot make enough for optimal functioning and therefore CoQ10 supplements may be very helpful.  Because CoQ10 is involved in basic energy production by every cell in the body, optimal amounts can be beneficial for a wide variety of complaints, symptoms and diseases."

Coenzyme Q10
from iVillage
"Free radicals are believed to contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health problems including heart disease and cancer.  Antioxidants such as CoQ10 can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause."

CoQ10: Cellular Nutrition for Vitality and Longevity
from Life Extension Foundation
"Every cell depends upon CoQ10 for energy production & antioxidant defense.  A safe, effective therapy for heart disease, CoQ10 may help extend life span & protect against degenerative disease."

"Hundreds of laboratory studies and clinical trials over the last thirty years have demonstrated the effectiveness of CoQ10 in pathologies involving bioenergetic deficit and oxidative stress."

The International Coenzyme Q10 Association
Vitamin C

New Journal Articles on Vitamin C Provide More Validation for Linus Pauling
by Peter Chowka
"Several articles in the Feb. 6, 2001 issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal provide the clearest evidence to date of mainstream medicine's increasingly positive reappraisal of vitamin C and the work of the late Linus Pauling."

Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable, by Thomas E. Levy, M.D.
Book Review by Andrew Saul, Ph.D.
"Dr. Levy’s book presents clear evidence that vitamin C cures disease. It contains over 1,200 scientific references, presented chapter by chapter. It does not mince words. It is disease specific.  It is dose specific.  It is practical.  It is readable.  It is excellent."

The Vitamin C Fanatics Were Right All Along
by Bill Sardi
"A new book, Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C … exposes the many flaws involved in the establishment of the Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamin C, and the revelations are alarming.  Millions of people could have delayed or avoided health problems such as cataracts, cancer, blood vessel disease, aneurysms, gall stones and more had NIH researchers properly conducted tests to determine the human need for vitamin C."

How Vitamin C Prevents Heart Attacks
by William Faloon
from Life Extension Foundation
"The published research findings suggest that vitamin C may reduce mortality in coronary artery disease patients, increase life span and possibly eliminate the effects of nitrate tolerance in those taking nitrate drugs.  While not recognized in the medical establishment as a therapy for coronary artery disease, there now exists an accumulated wealth of evidence that vitamin C has beneficial effects in the treatment of heart-related illnesses."

Does Vitamin C Cause Cancer - or Here We Go Again!
from the Linus Pauling Institute
"The study is a test tube experiment, showing some intriguing chemistry of vitamin C. The study does not, however, describe biochemistry or biology, and its relevance to reactions occurring in cells and tissues of the human body is unknown.  Many reactions of vitamin C occur in vitro (in the test tube) that will not and cannot occur in vivo (in the living organism).  Why?  Because the physiological environment of the cell and the body contains thousands of substances that also react with vitamin C and lipid hydroperoxides, “derailing” the chemistry observed in a test tube system."

Antioxidant Vitamin Combo Cuts Alzheimer's Risk: Vitamins E and C Are Very Effective, But Only When Used Together
Reported by Will Block
"The results of the study were striking. In the prevalence analysis, there was a strong inverse correlation between the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and the use of both vitamin E and vitamin C, with or without the concomitant use of multivitamins, i.e., the vitamin E + C combination was strongly protective, reducing the risk by 78%."

Vitamin D

Vitamin D has its own page.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E
from University of Maryland School of Medicine
Detailed.   Recommended.

Vitamin E: E for Excellent
by Alan Pressman, D.C., Ph.D. and Sheila Buff
Detailed.   Recommended.

Vitamin E: A Cure In Search Of Recognition
by Andrew W. Saul, Ph.D.
Back in 1985, Linus Pauling wrote: "The failure of the medical establishment during the last forty years to recognize the value of Vitamin E in controlling heart disease is responsible for a tremendous amount of unnecessary suffering and for many early deaths.  The interesting story of the efforts to suppress the Shute discoveries about Vitamin E illustrates the shocking bias of organized medicine against nutritional measures for achieving improved health."

Vitamin E: Revitalizing Your Immune System
An Interview with Simin Meydani, Ph.D.
from Life Extension Foundation
"The results showed that a variety of age-related changes in human immune system function could be reversed by ingesting more vitamin E than can be consumed in any reasonable human diet."

Newly Discovered Benefits of Gamma Tocopherol
from Life Extension Foundation
"The latest research places special emphasis on the newly discovered benefits of gamma tocopherol.  Since taking large doses of alpha tocopherol depletes plasma levels of gamma tocopherol, the health-conscious consumer who takes only alpha tocopherol supplements needs to seriously reconsider this practice.  Likewise, most vitamin E supplements provide only alpha tocopherol.  New evidence strongly suggests that this is inadequate supplementation."

An Unjustified Attack on Vitamin E
by William Faloon and Angela Pirisi
from Life Extension Foundation
"Studies published many years ago showed that for vitamin E to function as a continuous antioxidant, ample levels of vitamin C must be present to regenerate (donate more electrons) to vitamin E in the body.  The subjects who participated in the JAMA study were not allowed to take vitamin C or any other supplement that would have enabled the vitamin E to function as an effective antioxidant."

False and Misleading: The Media's Unfounded Attack on Vitamin E
from Life Extension Foundation
"The report was published in the on-line edition of Annals of Internal Medicine, a respected medical journal.  Less than a month later, however, some of the world’s best scientists had unleashed a fire-storm of criticism and rebuttals, challenging the study’s design, methodologies, selection bias, findings, and conclusions.  Although rebuttals debunking the Johns Hopkins report were posted on the Annals of Internal Medicine’s website, they were completely ignored by the news media."

"The media has often disseminated reports that unjustly attack the value of dietary supplements.  The way this flawed Johns Hopkins report has been sensationalized is perhaps more egregious than any other media distortion to date.
Instead of recognizing obvious flaws in this report, the media turned it into headline news, causing widespread fear that vitamin E supplements might actually shorten life span.  Never before has the public been exposed to such an outrageous farce.
The result of the media’s handling of this flawed study will be that many people will be duped into believing that there is no value to supplements.  Yet even the researchers who authored this study admit that it has no relevance to what healthy people should do to prevent disease."

A Rational Approach to Antioxidant Therapy and Vitamin E
by Mark Hyman, M.D., Joseph Pizzorno, N.D., Andrew Weil, M.D.
"Our duty is to educate, inform and provide guidance, not reflexively react to the shifting sands of scientific discovery or fail to understand the importance of considering new findings in the context of all levels of data and applying the rule of reasonableness."

Does Vitamin E Prevent Breast Cancer?
from Life Extension Foundation
"As a prelude to this article, readers should know that emerging evidence is calling into question previously held concepts about how vitamins function in the body.  While this new information corroborates what has been earlier cited in this publication, it is nonetheless critical to remind readers of the need to keep up with current findings.  For women concerned about breast cancer, there now appear to be validated methods of reducing the risk if the proper forms of vitamin E are consumed."

Choosing the Right Vitamin E for You
from Pro Health Network
"How do you know which vitamin E is right for you?  Vitamin E research has progressed to the point where scientists have identified different forms of natural vitamin E (i.e., gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienols) that confer better protection against the various types of free radical damages as well as having additional unique properties in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Now scientists believe that more than one type of vitamin E should be a part of a long-term nutritional or supplement program."

Vitamin E (Tocopherols and Tocotrienols)
Links to dozens of articles.

Folic Acid
The Amazing Importance of Folic Acid to Your Health
by Dr. Edward Reynolds
"Folic acid is important for functioning of the nervous system for everyone."

Folates: Supplemental Forms and Therapeutic Applications
by Gregory S. Kelly, N.D.
"Therapeutically, folic acid can reduce homocysteine levels and the occurrence of neural tube defects, might play a role in preventing cervical dysplasia and protecting against neoplasia in ulcerative colitis, appears to be a rational aspect of a nutritional protocol to treat vitiligo, and can increase the resistance of the gingiva to local irritants, leading to a reduction in inflammation. Reports also indicate that neuropsychiatric diseases secondary to folate deficiency might include dementia, schizophrenia-like syndromes, insomnia, irritability, forgetfulness, endogenous depression, organic psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, myelopathy, and restless legs syndrome."

Folic Acid Prevents Stomach Cancer
from Reuters Health
"High daily doses of folic acid may lower the risk of stomach cancer, according to a study in beagles conducted by Chinese researchers."

from Whole Health MD
"Essential for hundreds of chemical reactions that occur in the body every second, the mineral magnesium has received surprisingly little attention over the years.  Recent findings, however, suggest that it also has important health-promoting benefits, from an ability to prevent heart disease to a role in treating such chronic conditions as fibromylagia and diabetes."

The Miracle of Magnesium
by Carolyn Dean, M.D., N.D.
"Magnesium deficiency triggers or causes the following 22 conditions; the introduction of magnesium, either by a high-magnesium diet, with green drinks, or magnesium supplements, can help alleviate these conditions: ..."

Magnesium in Hypertension Prevention and Control
by Jay S. Cohen, M.D.
"Magnesium should be considered by anyone seeking to prevent or treat high blood pressure.  The foundation for a healthy blood pressure consists of a healthy diet, adequate exercise, stress reduction, and sufficient amounts of potassium and magnesium.  If you eat plentiful amounts of vegetables, you are likely getting plenty of potassium.  Sufficient magnesium, on the other hand, is difficult to obtain through diet alone."

The Magnesium Web Site Online Library
"Links to over 300 articles discussing magnesium and magnesium deficiency."

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
from American Heart Association
"Omega-3 fatty acids benefit the heart of healthy people, and those at high risk of — or who have — cardiovascular disease."

FDA Permits New Fish Oil Health Claim
from Life Extension Foundation
"This battle over what can be stated about fish oil began back in 1994.  While the FDA’s announcement of a broader health claim represents a significant legal victory, Life Extension is still not satisfied with the FDA’s latest health claim on fish oil supplements.  We reiterate our position that evidence from peer-reviewed scientific publications supporting the benefit of EPA and DHA supplements in reducing heart attack risk is conclusive and not merely 'supportive' as the FDA contends."

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Good For The Heart, And (maybe) Good For The Brain
from Science Daily
"There is mounting evidence that a diet containing omega-3 fatty acids, already known to help prevent cardiovascular disease, may also prevent depression."

The Role of Essential Fatty Acids in Cancer
Chapter 6 of Nutrition and Cancer: State of the Art
by Sandra Goodman, Ph.D.
Conclusions:"The above studies demonstrate the ability of essential fatty acids to prevent the formation, inhibit the progression, or directly kill cancer cells from a number of organs, including lung, breast, colon and UV-induced cancer.  The anti-cancer activity appears to be mediated by one or more of several mechanisms..."

Pregnant? Omega-3 Essential for Baby's Brain
"Babies born to mothers who had higher blood levels of DHA scored better on the attention tests until 6 months of age, and they scored better on different tests designed to measure visual learning in older babies at 1 year and 18 months.  The findings are reported in the July/August issue of the journal Child Development."

Fish/Cod Liver Oil in Pregnancy Useful for Allergy Prevention
from Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"Researchers have found that taking omega-3 fatty acids in the form of fish oil supplements during pregnancy might help prevent allergies in babies born to women with a history of hay fever or asthma."

Is It Safe to Take Fish Oil Supplements During Pregnancy?
by Anna McGrail
"Yes and no.  There are two types of fish oil supplement — those made from the liver of the fish and those made from the body of the fish.  Supplements made from the liver of the fish, such as cod liver oil, contain the retinol form of vitamin A and need to be either avoided altogether or strictly limited in pregnancy so that your daily intake does not exceed 3,300 micrograms (mcg)."

by Elson M. Haas, M.D.
"Selenium functions as a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which accounts for its antioxidant function and thus its important contribution to the prevention of the twentieth-century plagues, cancer and cardiovascular disease."

New Discoveries Expand Our Knowledge About Selenium's Importance
by Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D.
"The discovery of GPX opened the door to our understanding of how selenium is protective against cancer, heart disease, arthritis and accelerated aging. Now more scientific excitement is being generated with the recent finding that selenium is also a vital component of other mammalian enzymes."

Selenium Supplements Can Reduce Cancer Rates
from Cornell University Science News
"Although more than a hundred of animal and dozens of epidemiological studies have linked high selenium status and cancer risk, this is the first double-blind, placebo-controlled cancer prevention study with humans that directly supports the thesis that a nutritional supplement of selenium, as a single agent, can reduce the risk of cancer," said Gerald F. Combs Jr., a nutritional biochemist and Cornell professor of nutritional sciences.

Selenium for Breast Cancer Prevention
from Joseph Mercola, D.O.
"Women who are genetically predisposed to breast cancer may benefit from selenium, a trace element found in foods such as certain nuts, liver and kidneys, according to a study."

Andrew Saul's Web Site

Life Extension Foundation
"The Life Extension Foundation is the largest organization dedicated to investigating every method of extending the healthy human life span.  When seeking methods to slow aging and prevent disease, the foundation often uncovers potential therapies to treat the degenerative diseases of aging such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, stroke, macular degeneration, etc."

Linus Pauling Institute
"Major areas of research in the Institute encompass heart disease, cancer, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases.  Specific laboratories address antioxidants and vascular biology; vitamin E metabolism and biological activity; colon cancer and cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals; the role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, such as ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease); and the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the aging process."

Orthomolecular Medicine Online
"Orthomolecular medicine describes the practice of preventing and treating disease by providing the body with optimal amounts of substances which are natural to the body."
"In the orthomolecular view, the provision of vitamins, amino acids, trace elements or fatty acids in amounts sufficient to correct biochemical abnormalities will be therapeutic in preventing or treating such diseases."

Pro Health Network

The Vitamins and Nutrition Center
Provides hundreds of articles on vitamins and nutrition and handy vitamin profiles.

Dr. Hoffman and David Winston on Herbs and Functional Foods - 9/17/2007

Dr. Hoffman and Jack Challem on Supplement Research - 9/5/2007

Dr. Hoffman and Bill Sardi on Anti-Oxidants - 3/6/2007


Please click on the picture of the book or the title to order.

Robert C. Atkins, M.D., Dr. Atkins' Vita-Nutrient Solution: Nature's Answer to Drugs

James F. Balch, M.D., The Super Anti-Oxidants: Why They Will Change the Face of Healthcare in the 21st Century

Burt Berkson, M.D., Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough: The Superb Antioxidant That May Slow Aging, Repair Liver Damage, and Reduce the Risk of Cancer, Heart Disease, and Diabetes

Carolyn Dean, N.D., M.D., The Miracle of Magnesium

Edgar N Drake, Ph.D., Selenium: Are You Getting Enough to Reduce Your Risk of Cancer?

Michael Janson, M.D., Dr. Janson's New Vitamin Revolution: Seizing the Power of Nutritional Therapy for a Healthier and Longer Life

Thomas Levy, M.D., Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins

Michael Murray, N.D., Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements: The Essential Guide for Improving Your Health Naturally
Lester Packer, Ph.D., The Antioxidant Miracle: Put Lipoic Acid, Pycogenol, and Vitamins E and C to Work for You

Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D., The Coenzyme Q10 Phenomenon
Allan E. Sosin, M.D. and Beth Ley Jacobs, Ph.D., Alpha Lipoic Acid: Nature's Ultimate Antioxidant

Allan N. Spreen, M.D., Nutritionally Incorrect: Why the American Diet is Dangerous and How to Defend Yourself

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